Some language stuff
In the second-to-last paragraph, the little birds “sing a song for the old man”, or “唱歌给老爷爷听” chàng gē gěi lǎo yé ye tīng. You may notice that the characters for “give” (给 gěi) and the character for “listen” (听 tīng) are in there, but why? In Chinese, the way to say “to sing a song for (person)” is “sing a song and give (person) listen”. That should clear that up.
Action + result – In Chinese, actions are sometimes grouped together in the order in which they happened to express an entire concept. In paragraph two for example, we see 冻 dòng, which means “to freeze” and 死 sǐ, which means “to die”. If you stick them next to each other, you might guess that this means “freeze to death”, and you’d be right. First, you freeze, then as a result, you die.
In that same paragraph, we also see 吹走 chuī zǒu, 吹 meaning “to blow” (like the wind), and 走 meaning “to go away”. Put them together, and you get “to blow away”, like “the wind blew it away”. Similar pattern in the last paragraph in with 着凉生病. 着凉 zhuó liàng means “to catch a chill” and 生病 shēng bìng means “to get sick”, so “to get sick as a result of catching a chill”.
All of those examples make sense in English, and can be directly translated, but the final one, 送给 sòng gěi, is a little trickier. 送 means “to send” and 给 means “to give”, but this seems repetitive, like the same action is being done twice – where’s the result? To understand this, imagine the process of giving someone a present. First, you must deliver it to them in some way – you stretch out your hand if they’re in front of you, or put it in the mail – this is 送. Once it is in their hands, it has been given to them, this is 给. So, 送给 is really just the equivalent of the English word “to give”.
I’m sure I’ve just lumped a bunch of technically unrelated grammatical structures together and all the linguists are cringing, but this unprofessional little concept helps me decipher bunches of verbs, so tough linguistic cookies.